Money Stock, Monetary Base and Bank Behaviour in Germany
Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik (Journal of Economics and Statistics) 223, 2003, 257-278
This paper contributes to the analysis of the money supply process in Germany during the period of monetary targeting by the Bundesbank from 1975-1998. While the standard money multiplier approach assumes that the money stock is determined by the money multiplier and the monetary base it is argued here that both the money stock and the monetary base are determined endogenously by the optimizing behavior of commercial banks and private agents like households and firms. An industrial organization style model for the money creating sector that describes the money creation process is developed assuming that the main policy variable of the central bank is the money market interest rate. A vector error correction model for the nominal money stock, the monetary base, nominal income, short-term and long-term interest rates, and the required reserve rate is specified, and the interaction between these variables is analyzed empirically. The evidence contradicts the money multiplier approach and supports the presented model of the money creating sector.